Skip to Content

12 Blue Birds of Kentucky

blue birds of kentucky
Little Blue Heron in Franklin, Kentucky: Photo by Sunil Thirkannad


There is a variety of stunning blue birds of Kentucky, ranging from elegant waders to melodious songbirds. Let’s delve into the world of these captivating blue birds that grace the skies and landscapes of the Bluegrass State.

Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea)

  • Features: Despite its name, the Little Blue Heron boasts slate-blue plumage as an adult, transitioning from white during its juvenile stages. It has a slender, curved bill and long legs, which it uses to stalk prey in shallow water.
  • Behavior: Little Blue Herons are skilled hunters, patiently wading through marshes, ponds, and wetlands to catch fish, amphibians, and invertebrates. They often employ a slow, deliberate stalking technique, striking swiftly at their prey with a lightning-fast bill.
  • Locations: During the breeding season, Little Blue Herons can be found in freshwater and brackish wetlands throughout Kentucky, including marshes, swamps, and flooded fields. Outside of the breeding season, they may venture into coastal habitats.
  • Fun Fact: Despite their delicate appearance, Little Blue Herons are fierce predators, known for aggressively defending their feeding territories from other birds, including larger heron species.

Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias)

  • Features: The Great Blue Heron is a majestic wading bird with slate-gray to blue-gray plumage, a white head with a black eyebrow stripe, and a dagger-like bill. It stands tall on long, stilt-like legs and has a wingspan of up to six feet.
  • Behavior: Great Blue Herons are solitary hunters, patiently waiting for prey while standing motionless or stalking slowly through shallow water. They feed on a variety of aquatic creatures, including fish, frogs, snakes, and crustaceans, using their sharp bills to spear their prey.
  • Locations: Great Blue Herons are year-round residents in Kentucky, commonly found in a variety of freshwater habitats, including lakes, rivers, ponds, marshes, and estuaries. They may also be spotted in urban areas near bodies of water.
  • Fun Fact: During the breeding season, Great Blue Herons gather in large colonies known as heronries, where they build stick nests high in trees near water bodies.

Belted Kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon)

  • Features: The Belted Kingfisher is a distinctive bird with powder-blue plumage, a shaggy crest, and a prominent white collar or “belt” across its chest. It has a stocky build, a long, dagger-like bill, and a short tail.
  • Behavior: Belted Kingfishers are expert fishers, hovering over water bodies or perching on branches overlooking rivers, lakes, and streams. When they spot a fish, they dive headfirst into the water, catching their prey with their sharp bills.
  • Locations: Belted Kingfishers can be found year-round in Kentucky, particularly near bodies of water such as rivers, streams, lakes, and marshes. They are often heard before they are seen, emitting a distinctive rattling call as they fly.
  • Fun Fact: Despite their name, Belted Kingfishers are not exclusively fish-eaters. They also prey on insects, crustaceans, amphibians, and small mammals.

Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata)

  • Features: The Blue Jay is a striking bird with vibrant blue plumage, a white face, and a black necklace-like collar. It has a crest on its head, which it can raise or lower depending on its mood.
  • Behavior: Blue Jays are intelligent and highly vocal birds, often heard mimicking the calls of hawks and other birds. They are omnivorous, feeding on a wide range of foods, including nuts, seeds, insects, small vertebrates, and bird eggs.
  • Locations: Blue Jays are year-round residents in Kentucky, inhabiting a variety of habitats, including forests, woodlands, parks, and suburban areas. They are frequent visitors to bird feeders, where they eagerly consume seeds and suet.
  • Fun Fact: Blue Jays are known for their complex social structures, forming tight-knit family groups and engaging in cooperative behaviors such as mobbing predators to protect their nest sites.

Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor)

  • Features: Tree Swallows are small, agile birds with iridescent blue-green plumage on their upperparts and white underparts. They have long, pointed wings and a slightly forked tail, which they use to perform graceful aerial maneuvers.
  • Behavior: Tree Swallows are highly aerial birds, often seen darting and swooping through the air as they catch flying insects on the wing. They nest in tree cavities or artificial nest boxes and are known for their synchronized group flights.
  • Locations: Tree Swallows breed in open habitats with access to water, including meadows, marshes, and wetlands, throughout Kentucky. During the winter months, they migrate south to warmer regions.
  • Fun Fact: Tree Swallows are cavity-nesting birds that compete with other cavity nesters, such as Eastern Bluebirds and House Wrens, for nest sites. They are known to engage in aggressive interactions to defend their territories.

Purple Martin (Progne subis)

  • Features: Purple Martins are medium-sized swallows with glossy blue-black plumage and a distinctive forked tail. Adult males have a darker, more uniform plumage compared to females and juveniles.
  • Behavior: Purple Martins are colonial nesters, often nesting in large groups in artificial birdhouses or gourds provided by humans. They feed on flying insects caught in mid-air, performing acrobatic aerial maneuvers to capture their prey.
  • Locations: Purple Martins are summer residents in Kentucky, arriving in the spring to breed and raise their young. They can be found in a variety of open habitats, including fields, meadows, and near bodies of water.
  • Fun Fact: Purple Martins are highly sociable birds that form large communal roosts outside of the breeding season, gathering in the evenings to rest and socialize before dispersing to their nesting sites. 

Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea)

  • Features: The Blue-gray Gnatcatcher is a small, active songbird with a slate-blue upper body, a white underbody, and a long, black tail with white outer feathers. It has a distinctive white eye-ring and a slender bill.
  • Behavior: Blue-gray Gnatcatchers are insectivorous birds that forage for small insects, spiders, and other arthropods in trees and shrubs. They are known for their energetic behavior, constantly flitting and darting through foliage in search of prey.
  • Locations: Blue-gray Gnatcatchers breed in deciduous and mixed woodlands throughout Kentucky, often near streams or other water sources. They can also be found in parks, gardens, and wooded suburban areas.
  • Fun Fact: Despite their name, Blue-gray Gnatcatchers are not closely related to true gnatcatchers. They belong to their own unique family, Polioptilidae, and are more closely related to waxwings and vireos.

Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis)

  • Features: The Eastern Bluebird is a small thrush with bright blue upperparts, a rusty-orange breast, and a white belly. Males have deeper blue plumage compared to females, with a reddish wash on their throats.
  • Behavior: Eastern Bluebirds are cavity-nesting birds, often utilizing abandoned woodpecker holes or nest boxes provided by humans. They feed on insects, berries, and other small fruits, perching on low branches or wires to scan for prey.
  • Locations: Eastern Bluebirds can be found year-round in Kentucky, inhabiting open woodlands, pastures, orchards, and suburban areas with suitable nest sites. They are frequently seen perched on fence posts or power lines, singing their melodious songs.
  • Fun Fact: Eastern Bluebirds are known for their cooperative breeding behavior, with non-breeding individuals often assisting in the feeding and care of nestlings in a communal nest.

Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea)

  • Features: The Cerulean Warbler is a small, neotropical migrant with bright blue upperparts, a white underbody, and a distinctive white eye-ring. Males have a black necklace-like band across their throat.
  • Behavior: Cerulean Warblers are canopy-dwelling birds that forage for insects among the leaves of deciduous trees. They are often observed performing acrobatic aerial maneuvers as they glean insects from foliage or catch them in mid-air.
  • Locations: Cerulean Warblers breed in mature deciduous forests in Kentucky, particularly in areas with oak, hickory, and maple trees. During migration, they can be found in a variety of wooded habitats, including parks and riparian corridors.
  • Fun Fact: Cerulean Warblers are one of the fastest declining songbird species in North America, primarily due to habitat loss and fragmentation in their breeding and wintering grounds.

Black-throated Blue Warbler (Setophaga caerulescens)

  • Features: The Black-throated Blue Warbler is a small songbird with deep blue upperparts, a white underbody, and a black throat patch and facial mask. Females have more subdued plumage, with olive-green upperparts and a pale throat.
  • Behavior: Black-throated Blue Warblers are agile foragers, hopping among branches and foliage in search of insects and spiders. They often glean prey from leaves and twigs or catch flying insects in mid-air.
  • Locations: During the breeding season, Black-throated Blue Warblers can be found in mature deciduous and mixed forests throughout Kentucky. They prefer dense understory vegetation and are commonly heard singing from the treetops.
  • Fun Fact: Black-throated Blue Warblers are long-distance migrants, traveling thousands of miles between their breeding grounds in North America and their wintering grounds in the Caribbean and Central America.

Blue Grosbeak (Passerina caerulea)

  • Features: The Blue Grosbeak is a medium-sized songbird with vibrant blue plumage and a thick, conical bill. Males have deeper blue plumage with chestnut-brown wingbars and a rusty-brown patch on their backs.
  • Behavior: Blue Grosbeaks are seed-eating birds that forage for seeds and grains on the ground or in low vegetation. They also feed on insects during the breeding season, catching them in mid-air or picking them from foliage.
  • Locations: Blue Grosbeaks breed in open habitats with shrubby vegetation, including fields, pastures, and woodland edges, throughout Kentucky. They are often found in areas with scattered trees or shrubs where they can perch and sing.
  • Fun Fact: Blue Grosbeaks are known for their melodious songs, which consist of a series of whistled notes and trills. Males often sing from elevated perches to attract mates and defend their territories.

Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea)

  • Features: The Indigo Bunting is a small songbird with brilliant indigo-blue plumage and a stout, conical bill. Females and juveniles have more subdued brown plumage with faint blue tones on their wings and tail.
  • Behavior: Indigo Buntings are seed-eating birds that forage for seeds and grains in grasslands, meadows, and weedy fields. They are often seen perching on tall grass stems or wire fences, singing their cheerful, jumbled songs.
  • Locations: Indigo Buntings breed in brushy habitats and forest edges throughout Kentucky, particularly in areas with abundant shrubs and grasses. During migration, they may also be found in gardens, parks, and suburban areas.
  • Fun Fact: The brilliant blue plumage of male Indigo Buntings is not due to pigments but rather the structural arrangement of the feathers, which scatter and reflect blue light.

Threats and Conservation

Despite their beauty and adaptability, many of Kentucky’s blue birds face threats such as habitat loss, climate change, and collisions with man-made structures. Conservation efforts aimed at protecting and restoring vital habitats, implementing bird-friendly practices, and raising awareness about the importance of preserving biodiversity are crucial for ensuring the survival of these iconic species.

Citizen Science

Citizen science initiatives, such as eBird, provide valuable data on bird populations, distribution, and trends. By participating in bird monitoring programs, bird enthusiasts can contribute to scientific research and conservation efforts while deepening their understanding and appreciation of Kentucky’s blue bird species. Whether observing birds in their backyard or exploring natural areas, citizen scientists play a vital role in safeguarding the future of avian biodiversity.


Kentucky’s diverse habitats provide a haven for a stunning array of blue birds, from the majestic herons to the melodious warblers. Whether soaring high above the treetops or flitting among the branches, these blue-hued avian wonders enrich the natural tapestry of the Bluegrass State.