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All 23 Tinamous in Brazil

tinamous in brazil
Brown Tinamou in São Paulo, Brazil: Photo by Marco Valentini


Nestled within the vibrant ecosystems of Brazil lies a remarkable avian species – the tinamous. These enigmatic birds, often elusive and shrouded in mystery, play a vital role in the rich tapestry of South American biodiversity. With their diverse plumage and unique behaviors, tinamous captivate the imagination of bird enthusiasts and researchers alike.

In this article, we embark on a journey to unravel the secrets of the tinamous in Brazil. From their ecological significance to their intriguing adaptations, we delve into the fascinating world of these ground-dwelling birds. Join us as we explore the lives of these feathered wonders and gain a deeper understanding of their importance in Brazil’s natural heritage.

Tinamous in Brazil

Jump to a species!

Grey Tinamou (Tinamus tao)

  • Features: The largest tinamou in Brazil. The nominate form features a slate-grey forehead to hindneck with brownish spotting, transitioning to white short bars on the head and face. Its eyering, light grey or bluish-grey, accentuates its large eye. The upperparts and upperwing-coverts are grey to bluish-grey with darker slate-grey vermiculation and barring. The moustachial area, throat, and upper neck are densely mottled and barred white and slate-grey, with a lavender wash on the lower breast and belly. The iris is dark brown, the bill dark grey with some pale horn areas, and the legs are grey with a bluish to olivaceous tinge. Sexes have similar plumage, with females larger than males. Immatures display a dull brownish crown, bright cinnamon nape and hindneck, white stripes on the neck, mainly fuscous brown above, white specks on the back and upperwing, a white throat, a dull reddish-brown upper foreneck, and paler ashy grey below, with a bluish-black iris.
  • Habitat: Found in tropical and subtropical rainforests on the eastern slopes of the Andes up to 1900 meters, this species inhabits dense secondary forests and gallery forests in the cerrado of Brazil. It primarily occupies the forest floor of terra firme, occasionally venturing into várzea habitats.
  • Range: Brazil has two subspecies: the nominate form is fairly common and easy to find (for a tinamou species) in north-central Brazil, south of the Amazon; kleei is generally found in the western part of the country.
  • Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Solitary Tinamou (Tinamus solitarius)

  • Features: Large and drab, this cinnamon-brown tinamou showcases ochre markings on its neck. Its forehead to hindneck is cinnamon-brown, peppered with dark slate-grey markings, while the face and side of the head feature paler buffy to ochre coloring, darker around the ear-coverts. Its upperparts and upperwing-coverts are cinnamon-brown with dark slate-grey bars and vermiculations, becoming rustier and less boldly barred towards the lower rump and uppertail-coverts. The remiges display reduced cinnamon-brown barring on the outer webs and plain dark grey on the inner webs. Its iris is blackish, bill dark grey with pale horn at the tip, and legs grey to pale brownish. Both sexes share similar plumage, with females being larger than males. Immature individuals resemble adults but with fewer greyish tones, featuring a dark chestnut-brown plumage with small buff spotting above, particularly on the wings, and a more olive-tinged lower neck and breast, with legs ranging from grey to olive-grey.
  • Habitat: Found primarily in tropical and subtropical forests, this species thrives in warm and moist environments but can also tolerate areas with a cold dry season. It is commonly found in the Atlantic Forests of Brazil. It favors virgin forests with sparse undergrowth but can also inhabit secondary forests as long as the canopy remains intact.
  • Range: This species is a rare and very hard-to-see bird in southeastern Brazil. Not very vocal, it takes a lot of patience and luck to observe.
  • Conservation Status: Near Threatened

Great Tinamou (Tinamus major)

  • Features: This large brownish tinamou features barred upperparts and a white throat and central belly. Its forehead and crown are brown to rufescent with short blackish bars, while its upperparts and upperwing are drab brown with irregular blackish barring. The face and side of the head are pale grey to buff with dark brown pepperings, and the chin and throat are white, transitioning to darker brownish below. The thighs and flanks show darker vermiculations, forming short dark bars on a buffier ground color. The iris is blackish, the bill dark horn-grey, and the legs grey to light greyish-blue. Both sexes have similar plumage, with females larger than males. Immature individuals are darker with less distinct markings.
  • Habitat: This species inhabits dense primary and secondary rainforests, including both terra firme and várzea, within tropical and subtropical zones up to 1500 meters. It favors tall, undisturbed forests with a fairly open forest floor, although it can occasionally be found in dense undergrowth in wetter areas of the forest. It may also emerge into clearings or onto forest tracks at times.
  • Range: Four subspecies occur in Brazil: the nominate form is found (most often heard, like most tinamous) in northern Brazil, largely east of Rio Negro; olivascens occurs in Amazonian Brazil south of the river; serratus is restricted to northwestern Brazil, between Rio Içá and Rio Negro; peruvianus is found only in the extreme west of Brazil.
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

White-throated Tinamou (Tinamus guttatus)

  • Features: This bird is typically drab to brown with a mottled back and wings. Its forehead and crown are mostly grey, transitioning to mottled buff and blackish on the side of the head to the upper neck and nape, where long feathers form a mane or short crest. The anterior face is often mottled but can appear greyer. The lower neck is uniformly olive-brown to brown, with pale buff and blackish spots or chevrons on the upperparts and upper wings. The throat is paler, sometimes mostly whitish in the center. The underbody is lighter than the upperparts and may have a tawny tinge, with greyish vermiculation on the breast and wavy brownish and buffy barring on the thighs and flanks. The belly is usually palest, often creamy white, with chestnut-rufous undertail-coverts and fuscous markings. Its iris is blackish, the bill mostly blackish-brown with a horn-colored lower mandible, and its legs are grey to olive. Both sexes have similar plumage, with females larger than males. Immature birds resemble adults but with heavier pale spotting on the upperparts.
  • Habitat: This species primarily inhabits tropical rainforests, usually on terra firme.
  • Range: Found (heard) largely in eastern and northern Brazil, though fairly uncommon. Listen out for its iconic, melancholic call.
  • Conservation Status: Near Threatened

Cinereous Tinamou (Crypturellus cinereus)

  • Features: This tinamou is mostly plain grayish or brownish. Variation exists: lighter individuals have almost plain ash-brown plumage, with some rusty hue on the crown and hindneck. The face and side of the head are slightly paler, while the upperparts have inconspicuous buffy tips on rear feathers. Throat and underparts are slightly paler and grayer than the upperparts, with some faint whitish streaks on the throat. Darker individuals are fuscous above and dark ash-grey below. The iris is brown-red, red, or yellowish-brown, while the bill ranges from gray to blackish. Both sexes look similar, with females usually larger. Immature birds resemble adults but with buffy markings on the upperwing and rear underparts.
  • Habitat: This tinamou thrives in tropical rainforests, particularly in secondary growth, and is plentiful in várzea habitats. It can also be found in ecotones with savannas, areas with bushes and scattered trees, and even in coffee and cocoa plantations. It favors dense undergrowth.
  • Range: This bird is pretty common across most of northern and central Brazil. One of the easier tinamous to observe.
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

Little Tinamou (Crypturellus soui)

  • Features: The Little Tinamou is a small bird with subdued plumage. Its dark brown feathers contrast with lighter underparts. It has a blackish crown and dark gray sides of the head. While there’s some variation in plumage between males and females, females typically exhibit brighter colors than males.
  • Habitat: This bird resides in humid tropical and subtropical forests, favoring regions with dense scrub, young forests showing secondary growth, as well as thickets and plantations. Its habitat ranges from sea level to 1500 meters.
  • Range: Brazil has at least two subspecies present: the nominate form can be found in northeast Brazil; albigularis can be found in northern and eastern Brazil, but south of the Amazon.
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

Brown Tinamou (Crypturellus obsoletus)

  • Features: Tinamous are stout, ground-dwelling birds characterized by short tails and rounded wings. The Brown Tinamou, a medium-sized member of this group, lacks distinctive patterns. It features a slate-gray head and hindneck, dark chocolate-brown upperparts, and reddish-brown or buffy underparts with black barring on the flanks.
  • Habitat: The Brown Tinamou is typically found in humid montane forests in foothills and the Andes, as well as similar forests in southeastern Brazil. In Amazonia, it inhabits humid lowland evergreen forests, and in some areas, it occupies dry forests.
  • Range: Three subspecies occur in Brazil: the nominate form can be found (again, mainly identified by its “soccer referee whistle” call) in the east; hypochraceus is found in southwestern Brazil; griseiventris occurs in north-central Brazil.
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

Undulated Tinamou (Crypturellus undulatus)

  • Features: This bird is medium-sized, with a rather long, curved bill. The nominate race may have a capped appearance, with a sooty forehead and crown broken into bars or speckles on a sandy-brown to rufescent background. The sides of the head have a speckled pattern, with a paler area around the eye and a rounded patch on the ear-coverts, often darker than the rest of the face. The neck and upperparts are densely marked with blackish and brownish wavy bars, although this pattern varies among individuals. The chin and throat are white, while the breast appears plainer and paler, with vermiculated or peppered markings instead of bars. The rest of the underparts and thighs are buff with bold blackish bars or chevrons. The iris is deep red-brown, the bill is blackish with a grey base, and the legs are greyish to yellow-olive. Both sexes have similar plumage, with females slightly larger on average. Immature birds have black spotting on the breast, sides, and upperwing-coverts.
  • Habitat: This bird inhabits tropical zones, primarily in forests, dry scrub, cerrado, savannas, forest edges, chaco forests, várzea, open dry forests, moist gallery forests, river-island forests, and areas with young secondary growth and near flooded areas. In the chaco forest and caatinga of Brazil, it is only found at the edge, possibly due to being replaced by species better suited to dry conditions.
  • Range: These birds can be found in most of Brazil. Four subspecies occur: simplex is found in north-central Brazil, south to the Amazon’s north bank; yapura is found in northwestern Brazil; vermiculatus occurs in the east; adspersus is found centrally.
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

Brazilian Tinamou (Crypturellus strigulosus)

  • Features: This medium-sized tinamou has reddish-brown back and cheeks, with throat ranging from white to ferruginous. Males have blackish-grey forehead and crown, transitioning to chestnut on the nape and hindneck, with elongated shaggy neck feathers. Upperparts are rufescent-brown to warm olive-brown, faintly vermiculated, with obscure blackish barring on rump and uppertail-coverts. Wings resemble back, sometimes with scattered blackish and buff spotting. Throat to lower breast is grey to brownish-grey, fading to paler greyish brown, central abdomen white or whitish buff, thighs, flanks, and undertail-coverts brownish or ochraceous with some fuscous barring. Iris brown, bill mostly greyish, legs greyish to yellowish olive. Females resemble males but may have much greyer back and upperwing, with narrow blackish wavy bars, stronger and broader towards uppertail-coverts, where contrasting with narrow ochre-buff bars, upperwing-coverts and inner remiges more patterned with black spots or short bars, small buff spots and some whitish flecks. Juveniles undescribed.
  • Habitat: Thick, moist tropical forest
  • Range: Despite its name, this species is not endemic to Brazil. It is uncommon and hard to find in central and western Brazil.
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

Grey-legged Tinamou (Crypturellus duidae)

  • Features: The male has a blackish forehead transitioning to dusky rufous on the rear crown, with warm brown upperparts faintly vermiculated with obscure fuscous markings. The upperwing is similar, with irregular blackish markings and some buffy-white flecks, while the face and side of the head are rufescent-brown. The chin and throat are whitish, and the abdomen to the undertail-coverts is ochraceous to cinnamon-buff with variable fuscous-brown barring. The iris is brownish, the bill blackish with a dull yellowish mandible, and the legs bluish-grey to olive-grey. Females have a more evenly rufous cap and bolder pattern on the upperparts and wings. Juveniles have not been described.
  • Habitat: Thick tropical rainforest, including white-sand forest, and forest edges; sometimes seen in open woodlands with bushes.
  • Range: This bird is rare and uncommon in the far northwest of Brazil, mostly in Roraima.
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

Red-legged Tinamou (Crypturellus erythropus)

  • Features: Male nominate race has a blackish forehead and crown, deep rufescent brown on the nape and hindneck. The upperparts are rufescent brown, with faint fuscous barring on the rear back and more boldly on the uppertail-coverts, where black bars contrast strongly with paler buffy bars. The upperwing is similar but slightly paler and duller brownish, with coverts showing buffy-white notches on margins and narrow bars near the tip, contrasting with broader black bars. The face, side of the head, and down the side of the neck are ochre-rufous, while the chin is dirty white and the throat ranges from white to rufescent. The lower foreneck to chest is mouse-grey, the lower breast rufous-buff, and the rest of the underparts pale buff, with black barring on the lower flanks and undertail-coverts. The iris is brown, the bill blackish above and pale below, and the legs pink or reddish. Females resemble males but tend to have richer colors, particularly in the strong and extensive pattern of broad black and narrower cinnamon-buff to whitish bars on the lower back to the uppertail-coverts and on the upperwing, with the upper back only weakly barred.
  • Habitat: Found in tropical and lower subtropical regions up to 1700 meters, typically in thorny thickets, open forests, second growth, and dry to moist low deciduous forests. Additionally, it inhabits grasslands with bushes and sparse trees, open woodlands, and thorn-scrub.
  • Range: Only the nominate form occurs in Brazil, limited to the extreme northeast.
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

Yellow-legged Tinamou (Crypturellus noctivagus)

  • Features: The nominate race features a fuscous-grey cap, transitioning to paler slaty grey on the neck down to the chest, often with a vinaceous-brown tinge on the side of the neck. The mantle to upper back is also grey like the neck, sometimes with a variable brownish to cinnamon wash and at most obscurely scaled, with the ground color turning into chestnut-rufous on the lower back to the uppertail-coverts. The rear half of the upperparts has fuscous-brown to blackish barring, while the upperwing-coverts and inner remiges are fuscous, heavily marked with narrower tawny-cinnamon bars, sometimes tinged with grey on some coverts. The face and side of the head are similar in color to the neck, slightly paler around the eye, with a hint of a diffuse pale grey to pale cinnamon supercilium above and behind the eye. The chin and throat are whitish to light cinnamon, the breast tawny-rufous to vinaceous pink, and the rest of the underparts much paler, buff to ochraceous with fuscous barring. The iris is brown, the bill dark greyish, with the base of the lower mandible largely pale yellowish, and the legs flesh-yellow to olive-yellow.
  • Habitat: Found in tropical areas within forests, thorn-scrub, savanna woodland, and gallery forests.
  • Range: The first Brazilian endemic on this list, there are two forms: the nominate form occurs in the southeast; zabele occurs in the northeast.
  • Conservation Status: Near Threatened

Black-capped Tinamou (Crypturellus atrocapillus)

  • Features: The male of the nominate race has a blackish cap, hindneck, and mantle ranging from slate-grey to warm brown, sometimes with tiny black vermiculations, fading to brown with obscure blackish barring over the rest of the upperparts. The upperwing-coverts and inner remiges are plain brown, sometimes with buff spotting. The face and side of the head are sooty grey, sometimes with reddish-brown suffusion, and variable paler greyish and brownish markings forming a narrow posterior supercilium, along with a second, indistinct streak on the cheeks. The chin and throat to the upper foreneck are rufescent, with the rest of the neck to the chest being slate-grey, cinnamon on the breast and sides (deepest on the breast), becoming paler ochraceous-buff over the rest of the underparts, with the lower belly and undertail-coverts having blackish bars or vermiculations. The iris is dull yellowish, the bill dark greyish above and yellowish-flesh below, and the legs reddish.
  • Habitat: Tropical deciduous forest and várzea, along with secondary forest containing shrubs and grassy areas.
  • Range: This species has only recently been found in Brazil, with the garleppi form occuring in the extreme west in Acre.
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

Variegated Tinamou (Crypturellus variegatus)

  • Features: This tinamou has a grey head, cinnamon neck, and a long straight bill. It’s strongly barred, with the head and central nape in medium to sooty grey, and the forehead and crown darker grey to black, often with ochraceous spotting forming a hint of a rear supercilium. The chin is white to creamy yellow, fading to light cinnamon on the rear throat and brighter cinnamon on the neck and breast. The upper body is dark sepia-brown, with buffy yellow to cinnamon-buff bars. The underbody, thighs, and undertail-coverts are strongly barred in dark sepia, buff, and whitish. The iris is dark brown, the bill blackish-horn, and the legs olive-grey to olive-yellow.
  • Habitat: Found in forests and thickets within tropical and subtropical regions, ranging from 100 to 1300 meters. This includes rainforests and various forest types, often observed in clearings.
  • Range: This species is widespread across northern Brazil, extending all the way to the east coast.
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

Rusty Tinamou (Crypturellus brevirostris)

  • Features: This bird has a plain or dark-barred cap, chestnut-brown face and neck, and white chin. The upperparts are banded with ochraceous olive and black, fading on the wings. The breast and sides are bright ochraceous rufous, with narrow black barring on the flanks, and a white belly. Immatures are duller, with sparser barring on the flanks.
  • Habitat: Thick, humid tropical forests, commonly found in várzea habitats.
  • Range: Rusty Tinamou is a near-endemic to Brazil, occuring sparsely in the northwest. Disjunct populations exist in French Guyana and Colombia.
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

Bartlett’s Tinamou (Crypturellus bartletti)

  • Features: Short-billed tinamou with barred upperparts and a greyish or dusky head contrasting with a warm-colored neck. Plumage varies; some individuals appear dull olive-brown, while others have richer rufous tones, especially at the base of the neck. The forehead and crown range from dark brownish grey to blackish, becoming medium greyish brown on the face and sides of the head. The throat is white to whitish buff, transitioning to paler buffy brown or ochraceous on the breast, and the belly is palest ochre to cream-white. The rest of the underparts are light ochraceous, with black barring on the flanks. The iris is dark brown, the bill is blackish horn with a largely pale yellowish-horn base to the mandible, and the legs are grey to yellow-olive or olive-green. Immatures have sparsely spotted upperwing-coverts and breast, with indistinct dark markings on the flanks.
  • Habitat: Found primarily in dense, humid tropical forests, with occasional sightings in shrubby thickets.
  • Range: Sometimes considered a subspecies of Rusty Tinamou (see above), this species is limited to southeast Amazonia, occurring in western Brazil.
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

Small-billed Tinamou (Crypturellus parvirostris)

  • Features: A bird with a curved bill, resembling a rail (Rallidae) in overall appearance, varies in shades of grey and brown. Males have a slate-grey to paler bluish grey or greyish brown head to hindneck, often slightly darker on the forehead and crown. The upperparts and upperwing are brown to reddish brown, often with a variable grey wash, with secondary-coverts often having grey tips. The chin and throat are paler greyish to white, while the foreneck and chest match the head color, minutely vermiculated dusky. The belly and vent are pale olive-brown to ash-grey, while the flanks and part of the thighs have dark brown to blackish feathers sharply edged with white. Undertail-coverts are yellowish buff with a blackish central arrowhead outlined by a narrow blackish line. The iris is brown, deep red, or dark brown, the bill is red with a greyer or duskier culmen except at the base, and the legs are red.
  • Habitat: Found in tropical forests, often secondary, riverbank vegetation, stands of bamboo, scrub, and grassland with thornbush-scrub, as well as open fields. Occasionally observed in cotton and millet plantations. Commonly found in both cerrado and caatinga habitats.
  • Range: As far as tinamous go, this species is very common and occurs across almost all of Brazil, withstanding a variety of habitats.
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

Tataupa Tinamou (Crypturellus tataupa)

  • Features: A grey and brown tinamou with a long curved bill, resembling a rail (Rallidae). The nominate race has a slaty grey head and neck, darkest on the forehead and crown, slightly paler on the sides of the head, and whitish on the chin and throat. The upperparts transition from a warm chocolate-brown on the upper mantle to brighter hues on the lower rump and uppertail-coverts. The breast is bluish grey to grey, with a bold scaly pattern of sharply white-edged black feathers on the flanks. The undertail-coverts are pale buff to whitish, each feather strongly marked with a broad blackish arrowhead-shaped center outlined by one or two narrow blackish lines.
  • Habitat: Found in tropical and subtropical forests, often in wet, densely vegetated gulleys near forest edges, with occasional sightings in grassy areas and scrub. They inhabit both lowlands and hills.
  • Range: Two forms occur in Brazil: the nominate form is found regularly in southeast and central Brazil; lepidotus is restricted to the northeast.
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

Red-winged Tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens)

  • Features: It has a round body, with dull brown wings and back marked with black barring, a ruddy-colored head, dark crown, and a thick, slightly curved bill.
  • Habitat: Varies according to altitude. In tropical lowlands, ranging from sea-level to around 1000 m (occasionally higher), it prefers damp grassland and savanna woodland. In Eastern Brazil, it has also been observed within the forested interior of the Vale Natural Reserve.
  • Range: Two forms occur in Brazil: the nominate subspecies is found all over central, southern, and eastern Brazil; catingae can be observed irregularly in central and northeast Brazil.
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

White-bellied Nothura (Nothura boraquira)

  • Features: Plumage varies, with some individuals duller brown. Forehead and crown feathers are black with reddish-brown edges. Upperparts are intricately patterned with buff bars and black vermiculations, framed by whitish-buff stripes. The throat is whitish buff or white, while the chest is greyish brown with black streaks. Belly is white or buffy white. Iris is pale yellowish, bill is horn-brown to dusky grey, and legs are bright rich yellow.
  • Habitat: Found in tropical regions, including dry pastures, grasslands with thornbush scrub, and areas with scattered trees. In Brazil, it inhabits both dense and open areas of caatinga, as well as parts of the cerrado zone and Chaco region.
  • Range: Found in northeast Brazil, but uncommon. If not for disjunct population in Bolivia and Paraguay, would be a Brazilian endemic.
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

Lesser Nothura (Nothura minor)

  • Features: Smallest in its genus, often stands upright. Plumage varies: darker birds have reddish-brown forehead and crown with black spots, neck is buff with black spots merging into reddish-brown on lower hindneck. Upperparts are reddish-brown with black blotches or vermiculations, sometimes lacking on some birds. Lighter rufous upperwing-coverts have fuscous barring, remiges are dusky brown with cinnamon to tawny-buff bars. Face is buff or yellow-buff with a dark postocular stripe and sometimes a narrow dark moustachial line. Chin and throat are white or whitish-buff, chest with dark shaft streaks, underparts whitish-buff to buffy rufous. Light individuals have similar dark pattern on a rufescent-buff ground color above, with light buff underparts and narrow dark shaft streaks on the lower neck. Iris is light yellowish to orange-yellow; bill gray-horn to dusky brown above, pinker at the tip, and yellowish to pinkish below; legs range from pale dull yellowish pink to darker yellow-orange. Sexes are similar. Immature birds are not described.
  • Habitat: Occurs in tropical grasslands and scrub, particularly in dense cerrado and more open campo-cerrado. In Brazil, primarily found in campo limpo grasslands. Prefers habitats with continuous coverage of tall grasses and sedges, although occasional sightings have been noted in recently burnt areas.
  • Range: These birds are very rare and are one of many grassland species that have seen their range drastically decline due to clearing. It is almost endemic to Brazil’s interior (recently discovered in Paraguay).
  • Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Spotted Nothura (Nothura maculosa)

  • Features: The Spotted Nothura exhibits some variability but typically displays pale, grayish, or olive upperparts adorned with black spots and vermiculations. Its underparts are buffy, with the neck and breast often streaked with dusky markings. Both males and females share similar appearances.
  • Habitat: The Spotted Nothura inhabits grasslands and cultivated fields, thriving in areas with relatively low and not overly dense ground cover, including soybean, corn, wheat, and dry land rice fields.
  • Range: Three forms occur in Brazil: the nominate form can be found in southeast Brazil; major is found in east-central Brazil; cearensis occurs in the northeast.
  • Conservation Status: Least Concern

Dwarf Tinamou (Taoniscus nanus)

  • Features: The smallest tinamou, and the only member of its genus, it is highly barred, with reddish-brown to ochre-grey plumage. Males display intricate patterns on the crown and upperparts, featuring dull brownish-buff to reddish-brown feathers with black blotches framed by narrow whitish lines and buff bars. The upperwing-coverts are similarly barred and spotted, while the remiges are plain dusky brownish. The face and side of the head are dull buff to ochre, sometimes with dark dots, and the side of the neck shows dense black mottling. Chin and throat are whitish, with the foreneck to chest mottled black with whitish-buff spots. The underparts are barred black, whitish-buff, and reddish-ochre to dull brownish on the sides and flanks. Iris is dull yellowish, bill dark above and pale below, and legs are pink to yellow-orange.
  • Habitat: Found in secondary forests, savannas, and cerrado, often preferring pastures with short grass and scattered bushes under two meters tall. Occasionally sighted near urban areas and in recently burnt fields.
  • Range: The Dwarf Tinamou is a very rare Brazilian endemic that can only be found locally in central and southeast parts of the country.
  • Conservation Status: Endangered

Threats and Conservation

Birds in Brazil face numerous threats including habitat loss due to deforestation, agricultural expansion, and urbanization, as well as illegal wildlife trade and climate change. Conservation efforts are crucial to protect these species, with organizations such as BirdLife International, Instituto Terra, and SOS Mata Atlântica working to conserve bird habitats, conduct research, and raise awareness about the importance of bird conservation. These organizations collaborate with local communities, governments, and other stakeholders to implement conservation strategies and safeguard the rich avian biodiversity of Brazil.

Citizen Science

Citizen science plays a vital role in bird conservation efforts in Brazil, with platforms like eBird enabling bird enthusiasts to contribute valuable data on bird populations and distributions. In addition to eBird, local projects such as Rede de Observadores de Aves e Mamíferos do Paraná (PR) engage volunteers in bird monitoring and research across Brazil. These initiatives empower citizens to participate in scientific endeavors, collect important data for conservation purposes, and raise awareness about the importance of protecting Brazil’s diverse avian fauna.


In conclusion, tinamous in Brazil play an essential role in the country’s ecosystems, thriving in various habitats from dense forests to open grasslands. Their adaptability and diverse plumage make them fascinating subjects for bird enthusiasts and scientists alike. As we continue to learn more about these unique birds, it becomes increasingly clear that their conservation is crucial to maintaining the ecological balance of Brazil’s rich biodiversity. Through continued research, habitat protection, and public awareness, we can ensure a sustainable future for tinamous and the ecosystems they inhabit in Brazil.